Embajada de la Federación de Rusia en los Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Tel.: +52 (55) 5516-0870
Tel.: +52 (55) 5273-1305
/Horario de atención: 8:30 – 13:30,15:15 – 19:00

History

The history of the country began with the Eastern Slavs. Founded and led by a Viking warrior noble class and its descendants, the first state of the Eastern Slavs, the Kievan Rus, emerged in the 9th century and adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning a synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic that would define Russian culture for the next millennium. Subsequently, the Kievan Rus disintegrated into many small feudal states, the most powerful of them being the Principality of Moscow, which became the main force in the process of Russian reunification and the fight for independence against the Golden Horde. Unlike its spiritual leader, the Byzantine Empire, Russia, under the leadership of Moscow, was able to revive and organize its own war of the reconquest, finally subjugating its enemies and annexing its lost territories.

After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Moscow Rus remains the only functional Christian state on the border of Eastern Europe, thus acquiring the right to claim succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire. But the true founder of the Moscow state and unifier of the Russian lands was Ivan III (1533‒1584), who united many Russian lands around Moscow and definitively expelled the Mongols. The city of Moscow grew rapidly and the Kremlin wall and towers were erected. In the late fifteenth century, taking advantage of the weakness of the Russian state, the Poles attacked Moscow and entered the city. In 1612 the Poles were expelled and in 1613 Mikhail Romanov (1613‒1645), founder of the Romanov dynasty, who would rule Russia until 1917, acceded to the throne.

A boost to the political-economic, social and cultural development and the modernization of the Russian army gave the reforms of Peter the Great, carried out at the end of the 17th century and the first quarter of the 18th. The brilliant victories obtained by Peter's troops in the Northern War (1700‒1721), allowed Russia to go out into the Baltic Sea, opening a proverbial "window onto Europe".

In 1703 the city of Saint Petersburg, the "northern capital" of Russia, was founded. In that period, Russia's diplomacy and international relations intensified. In the 16th‒19th centuries, after annexing and assimilating the territories of the North, Volga, Urals, Siberia, the Far East and the voluntary integration of several non-Russian peoples, a multinational state was formed: the Russian Empire.

In 1917, the Russian Social-Democratic (Bolshevik) Workers' Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, carried out the October Revolution, which determined the destiny of the country for many decades. The main objective of the revolution was proclaimed the construction of society, first socialist and then communist. In December 1922 the Soviet Union (USSR) was established.

The Great Patriotic War of 1941‒1945 was a severe ordeal for the Soviet people. The fight against the German Nazi invaders was deployed nationwide. In the short term, all the means and resources available in the State were mobilized in order to organize adequate resistance to the enemy. Thanks to the bravery of Soviet soldiers, the martial genius of an entire extraordinarily talented pleyade of generals, and the efforts of the entire people, the Soviet Union defeated Nazi Germany and freed the entire world from the threat of fascism.

In 1991, as a result of the Belovezhskaia Puscha agreements, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. It is succeeded by the Russian Federation.

In the 2018 Russian presidential election, candidate Vladimir Putin won, taking office in May of the same year.